We now come to planes made for special purposes chief among st which are those used for working or cleaning up rebates. They include the rebate plane (which today is also invariably a fillister plane), the shoulder plane, and the bull nose plane, all of metal.
Rebate plane. The metal type is provided with an adjustable fence and depth stop, in which form it is virtually a filibuster plane. A spur is also fitted, the purpose of which is to cut the fibres when working across the grain. Being situated in front of the cutter it severs the grain before the cutter comes into action and so prevents splitting out. It is, however, necessary to draw the plane back-wards for two or three strokes first. For working with the grain, the spur is not needed and is fixed in its neutral position.
Sighting the plane when setting. in a metal plane all adjustment is by screw or lever. In a wood plane either the cutter or the striking knob are tapped with the hammer.
The shoulder plane is used mostly for trimming wide shoulders. Its low pitch and perfect accuracy make it specially suit-able for end grain and close work. In the same class, but having a considerably greater variety of uses is the bull nose plane. Apart from trimming small rebates it has a hundred-and-one general bench uses and is well worth its cost. An essential feature of the sharpening of all three of the above planes is that the edge must be kept square.
For working grooves the lough plane is used; many varieties are available. If you reckon to do small work only the small metal type with three cutters is handy. It is, however, a light tool and the full-size lough with up to a dozen cutters is more useful.
These are not used much nowadays, partly because moldings have largely gone out of fashion, and also because the spindle molder or the high-speed electric router is available. However, a small, round plane to work hollows is handy. The trick in using all molding planes is to start at the far end of the wood and bring the plane a little farther back each stroke which helps to prevent it from drifting with the grain. Most small moldings can be worked with the scratch-stock, sometimes in combination with the rebate plane.