Halved and bridle joints
Halved joints. The halving joint is probably the simplest way of joining two pieces at right angles or at an odd angle. Although not so strong as the mortise and tenon it is useful for such items as light frames. It needs screwing or nailing as well as gluing. In all cases the depth is marked with the gauge from the face side on both pieces. When marking the notch or groove the chisel or knife and square should be used, and a sloping groove cut on the waste side. This provides a channel in which the saw can be run. When sawing the end part of the halving, the saw should be used immediately to the waste side of the gauge line.
In the cases of fit should be just hand tight. If too tight the wood may be bent by the pressure. Dovetail halving at E and F are used when the joint has to resist a direct outward strain. The upright member is cut first, laid on the horizontal member, and the sides marked with a knife. Mitered halving is often used when the surface has to be molded or channeled. When an internal edge molding is needed the joint at H is used.
For such items as mirror frames the joint at Fig. 21 is useful in that the surface can be moulded. When two parts have to join in T-form the joint at J is used. The center leg of a side-board or table is an example of its use. That at K is an alternative when the top rail lies flat. Often the tenon is wedged at the top, the mortise ends being cut at a slope.